McCarthyism

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Senator Joseph McCarthy

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Senator Joseph McCarthy

McCarthyism is the term describing a period of intense anti-Communist suspicion in the United States that lasted roughly from the late 1940s to the mid to late 1950s. The term derives from U.S. Senator Joseph McCarthy, a Republican of Wisconsin. The period of McCarthyism is also referred to as the Second Red Scare, and coincided with increased fears of Communist influence on American institutions, espionage by Soviet agents, heightened tension from the Soviet domination of Eastern Europe, the success of the Chinese Communist revolution (1949) and the Korean War (1950-1953).

During this time people in a variety of situations, primarily those employed in government, in the entertainment industry or in education, were accused of being Communists or communist sympathizers and became the subject of aggressive investigations and questioning before various government or privately run panels, committees and agencies. Suspicions were often given credence despite inconclusive or questionable evidence, and the level of threat posed by a person's real or supposed leftist associations or beliefs was often greatly exaggerated. Many people suffered loss of employment, destruction of their careers, and even imprisonment. Most of these punishments came about through trial verdicts that would later be overturned,[1] laws that would later be declared unconstitutional,[2] dismissals for reasons that would be later declared illegal[3] or actionable,[4] or extra-legal procedures that would later come

Origins of McCarthyism

The historical period of McCarthyism began well before McCarthy's own involvement in it. There are many factors that can be counted as contributing to McCarthyism, some of them extending back to the years of the first Red Scare (1917-1920), and indeed to the inception of Communism as a recognized political force. Thanks in part to its success in organizing labor unions and its early opposition to fascism, the Communist Party of the United States increased its membership through the 1930s, reaching a peak of 50,000 members in 1942.[5] While the United States was engaged in World War II and allied with the Soviet Union, the issue of anti-communism was largely muted. With the end of World War II, the Cold War began almost immediately, as the Soviet Union installed repressive Communist puppet régimes across Central and Eastern Europe. Tensions rose dramatically in 1948 with the Berlin Crisis, instigated when the Soviet Union blockaded access points to West Berlin.

Events in the years of 1949 and 1950 served to sharply increase the sense of threat from Communism in the United States. The Soviet Union exploded an atomic bomb in 1949, earlier than many analysts had expected them to develop the technology. Also in 1949, Mao Zedong's Communist army gained control of mainland China despite heavy financial support of the opposing Kuomintang by the U.S. In 1950, the Korean War began, pitting U.S., U.N. and South Korean forces against Communists from North Korea and China. 1950 also saw several significant events regarding Soviet espionage activities against the U.S. In January, Alger Hiss, a high-level State Department official, was convicted of perjury. Hiss was in effect found guilty of espionage; the statute of limitations had run out for that crime, but he was convicted of having perjured himself when he denied that charge in earlier testimony before the House Committee on Un-American Activities. In Great Britain, Klaus Fuchs confessed to committing espionage on behalf of the Soviet Union while working on the Manhattan Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory during the War. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were arrested on charges of stealing Atomic bomb secrets for the Soviets on July 17.

The institutions of McCarthyism

There were many anti-Communist committees, panels and "loyalty review boards" in federal, state and local government, as well as many private agencies that carried out investigations for small and large companies concerned about possible Communists in their employ.

In Congress, the most notable bodies for investigating Communist activities were the House Un-American Activities Committee, the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee and the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. Between 1949 and 1954, a total of 109 such investigations were carried out by these and other committees of Congress.[9]

The Executive Branch

Loyalty-security reviews

In the federal government, President Truman initiated a program of loyalty reviews for federal employees in 1947. Truman's Executive Order mandating these reviews called for dismissal if there were "reasonable grounds... for belief that the person involved is disloyal to the Government of the United States."[10] Truman, a Democrat, was probably reacting in part to the Republican sweep in the 1946 Congressional election, and felt a need to counter the

Once a person lost a job due to an unfavorable loyalty review, it could be very difficult to find other employment "A man is ruined everywhere and forever," in the words of the chairman of President Truman's Loyalty Review Board. "No responsible employer would be likely to take a chance in giving him a job."[14]

The Attorney General started keeping a list of organizations that it deemed subversive beginning in 1942. This list was first made public in 1948, when it included 78 items. At its longest, it comprised 154 organizations, 110 of them identified as Communist. In the context of a loyalty review, membership in a listed organization was meant to raise a question, but not to be considered proof of disloyalty. One of the most common causes of suspicion was membership in the Washington Bookshop Association, a left-leaning organization that offered lectures on literature, classical music concerts and discounts on books.[15]

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J. Edgar Hoover and the FBI

FBI director J. Edgar Hoover was one of the nation's most fervent anti-communists, and one of the most powerful.

Hoover's influence extended beyond federal government employees and beyond the loyalty-security programs. The records of loyalty review hearings and investigations were supposed to be confidential, but Hoover routinely gave evidence from them to congressional committees such as HUAC.[18] Additionally, from 1951 to 1955 the FBI operated a secret "Responsibilities Program" which distributed anonymous documents with evidence from FBI files of Communist affiliations on the part of teachers, lawyers and others. Many people accused by way of these "blind memoranda" were fired without any further process.[19]

The FBI engaged in a number of illegal practices in its pursuit of information on Communists, including burglaries, opening mail and illegal wiretaps.[20] The National Lawyers Guild was a particular target of Hoover's; the office of this organization of left-wing lawyers was burglarized by the FBI at least fourteen times between 1947 and 1951. NLG members were among the few attorneys who were willing to defend clients in communist-related cases. Among other purposes, the FBI used its information to alert prosecuting attorneys about the planned legal strategies of NLG defense lawyers.

The FBI also used illegal undercover operations to harass and disrupt Communist and other dissident political groups. In 1956, Hoover was becoming increasingly frustrated by Supreme Court decisions that limited the Justice Department's ability to prosecute Communists. At this time he formalized a covert "dirty tricks" program under the name COINTELPRO.[21] COINTELPRO actions included planting forged documents to create the suspicion that a key person was an FBI informer, spreading rumors through anonymous letters, leaking information to the press, calling for IRS audits, and the like. The COINTELPRO program remained in operation until 1971.

HUAC

Main article: House Un-American Activities Committee

The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) was the most prominent and active government committee involved in anti-Communist investigations. Formed in 1938 and known as the Dies Committee and chaired by Martin Dies until 1944, HUAC investigated a variety of "activities," including those of German-American Nazis during World War II. The Committee soon focused on Communism, beginning with an investigation into Communists in the Federal Theatre Project in 1938. A significant step for HUAC was its investigation of the charges of espionage brought against Alger Hiss in 1948. This investigation ultimately resulted in Hiss' trial and conviction for perjury, and convinced many of the usefulness of congressional committees for uncovering Communist subversion. HUAC achieved its greatest fame and notoriety with its investigation into the Hollywood film industry. In October of 1947, the Committee began to subpoena film actors, directors, and screenwriters to testify about the Communist beliefs, statements or associations of themselves and their associates. It was at these testimonies that what became known as the "$64 question" was asked: "Are you now or have you ever been a member of the Communist Party of the United States?" Among the first film industry witnesses subpoenaed by the Committee were ten who decided not to cooperate. These men, who became known as the "Hollywood Ten" cited the First Amendment's guarantee of free speech and free assembly, which they believed legally protected them from being required to answer the Committee's questions. This tactic failed, and the ten were sentenced to prison for contempt of Congress. Two of the ten were sentenced to 6 months, the rest to a year. In the future, witnesses (in the entertainment industries and otherwise) who were determined not to cooperate with the Committee would claim their Fifth Amendment protection against self-incrimination. While this usually protected them from a contempt of Congress citation, it was considered grounds for dismissal by many government and private industry employers. The legal requirements for Fifth Amendment protection were such that a person could not testify about his own association with the Communist Party and then refuse to "name names" of colleagues with Communist affiliations.[22][23] Thus many faced a choice between "crawl[ing] through the mud to be an informer," as actor Larry Parks put it, or becoming known as a "Fifth Amendment Communist,"--an epithet often used by Senator McCarthy.

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Senate Committees

Joseph McCarthy himself headed the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations in 1953 and 1954, and during that time used it for a number of his Communist-hunting investigations. McCarthy first examined allegations of Communist influence in the Voice of America, and then turned to the overseas library program of the State Department. Card catalogs of these libraries were searched for works by authors McCarthy deemed inappropriate. McCarthy then recited the list of supposedly pro-communist authors before his subcommittee and the press. Yielding to the pressure, the State Department ordered its overseas librarians to remove from their shelves "material by any controversial persons, Communists, fellow travelers, etc." Some libraries actually burned the newly-forbidden books.[25] McCarthy's committee then began an investigation into the United States Army. This began at the Army Signal Corps laboratory at Fort Monmouth. McCarthy garnered some headlines with stories of a dangerous spy ring among the army researchers, but ultimately nothing came of this investigation.[26] McCarthy next turned his attention to the case of an Army dentist who had been promoted to major in spite of the fact he had refused to answer questions on an army loyalty review form. McCarthy's handling of this investigation, including a series of insults directed at a Brigadier General, led to the army-McCarthy hearings, with the army and McCarthy trading charges and counter-charges for 36 days before a nation-wide television audience. While the official outcome of the hearings was inconclusive, this exposure of McCarthy to the American public resulted in a sharp decline in his popularity.[27] In less than a year, McCarthy was censured by the Senate and his position as a prominent force in anti-communism was essentially ended.

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Blacklists

On November 25, 1947 (the day after the House of Representatives approved citations of contempt for the Hollywood Ten), Eric Johnston, President of the Motion Picture Association of America, issued a press release on behalf of the heads of the major studios that came to be referred to as the Waldorf Statement. This statement announced the firing of the Hollywood Ten and stated: "We will not knowingly employ a Communist or a member of any party or group which advocates the overthrow of the government of the United States[…]" This open capitulation to the attitudes of McCarthyism marked the beginning of the Hollywood blacklist. In spite of the fact that hundreds would be denied employment, the studios, producers and other employers did not publicly admit that a blacklist existed.

At this time, private loyalty-review boards and anti-communist investigators began to appear to fill a growing demand among certain industries to certify that their employees were above reproach. Companies that were concerned about the sensitivity of their business, or who, like the entertainment industry, felt particularly vulnerable to public opinion made use of these private services. For a fee, these teams would investigate employees and question them about their politics and affiliations. At such hearings, the subject would usually not have a right to the presence of an attorney, and as with HUAC, the interviewee might be asked to defend himself against accusations without being allowed to cross-examine the accuser. These agencies would keep cross-referenced lists of leftist organizations, publications, rallies, charities and the like, as well as lists of individuals who were known or suspected communists. Books such as Red Channels and newsletters such as Counterattack and Confidential Information were published to keep track of communist and leftist organizations and individuals.[28] Insofar as the various blacklists of McCarthyism were actual physical lists, they were created and maintained by these private organizations.

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Victims of McCarthyism

It's difficult to estimate the number of innocent victims of McCarthyism. The number imprisoned is in the hundreds, and some ten or twelve thousand lost their jobs.[32] In many cases, simply being subpoenaed by HUAC or one of the other committees was sufficient cause to be fired.[33] Many of those who were imprisoned, lost their jobs or were questioned by committees did in fact have a past or present connection of some kind with the Communist Party. According to historian Ellen Schrecker the potential for a majority of these people to harm to the nation and the nature of their communist affiliation were tenuous.[34] Suspected homosexuality was also a common cause for being targeted by McCarthyism. According to some scholars, this resulted in more persecutions than did alleged connection with Communism.[35]

In the film industry, over 300 actors, authors and directors were denied work in the U.S. through the unofficial Hollywood blacklist. Blacklists were at work throughout the entertainment industry, in universities and schools at all levels, in the legal profession, and in many other fields. A port security program initiated by the Coast Guard shortly after the start of the Korean War required a review of every maritime worker who loaded or worked aboard any American ship, regardless of cargo or destination. As with other loyalty-security reviews of McCarthyism, the identities of any accusers and even the nature of any accusations were typically kept secret from the accused. Nearly three thousand seamen and longshoremen lost their jobs due to this program alone.[36]

A few of the more famous people who were blacklisted or suffered some other persecution during McCarthyism are listed here:

The 1952 Arthur Miller play The Crucible used the Salem witch trials as a metaphor for McCarthyism, suggesting that the process of McCarthyism-style persecution can occur at any time or place. The play focused heavily on the fact that once accused, a person would have little chance of exoneration, given the irrational and circular reasoning of both the courts and the public. Miller would later write: "The more I read into the Salem panic, the more it touched off corresponding images of common experiences in the fifties."[52]

News analyst Edward R. Murrow

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News analyst Edward R. Murrow

McCarthy himself came under increasing attack in the mid-fifties. On March 9, 1954, famed CBS newsman Edward R. Murrow aired a highly critical "Report on Joseph R. McCarthy" that used footage of McCarthy himself to portray him as dishonest in his speeches and abusive toward witnesses. In April of the same year the Army-McCarthy Hearings began and were televised live on the new American Broadcasting Company. This allowed the public and press to view first-hand McCarthy's interrogation of individuals and his controversial tactics. In one exchange, McCarthy reminded the Army's attorney general, Joseph Welch that he had an employee in his law firm who had belonged to an organization that had been accused of Communist sympathies. Welch famously rebuked McCarthy: "Have you no sense of decency, sir? At long last, have you left no sense of decency?" This exchange reflected a growing negative public opinion of McCarthy.

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The decline of McCarthyism

Continuing controversy

Though the interpretation of the Red Scare might seem to be of only historical interest following the end of the Cold War, the political divisions it created in the United States continue to manifest themselves, and the politics and history of anti-Communism in the United States are still contentious. One source of controversy is that repressive actions taken against the radical left during the McCarthy period are viewed as providing a historical template for similar actions against Muslims following the September 11th terrorist attacks. This analogy has been made explicit both by left-wing opponents of such actions (such as the American Civil Liberties Union) and right-wing proponents (such as Ann Coulter) alike. The guilt, innocence, and good or bad intentions of the icons of the Red Scare (McCarthy, the Rosenbergs, Alger Hiss, Whittaker Chambers, Elia Kazan) are still discussed as proxies for the imputed virtues or vices of their successors and sympathizers. See historical revisionism.

From the viewpoint of some conservatives and McCarthy supporters, past and present, the identification of foreign agents and the suppression of "radical organizations" was necessary. Anti-Communists of the period felt there was a dangerous subversive element that posed a danger to the security of the country, thereby justifying extreme measures.

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Current use of the term

Since the time of McCarthy, the word "McCarthyism" has entered American speech as a general term for a variety of distasteful practices: aggressively questioning a person's patriotism, making poorly supported accusations, using accusations of disloyalty to pressure a person to adhere to conformist politics or to discredit an opponent, subverting civil rights in the name of national security and the use of demagoguery are all often referred to as McCarthyism.

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Notes

  1. ^ For example, Yates v. United States, 1957; or Watkins v. United States, 1957: Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press, pp 205, 207. ISBN 0-19-509701-7.
  2. ^ For example, the California "Levering Oath" law, declared unconstitutional in 1967: Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press, pg. 124. ISBN 0-19-509701-7.
  3. ^ For example, Slochower v. Board of Education, 1956: Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press, pg. 203. ISBN 0-19-509701-7.
  4. ^ For example, Faulk vs. AWARE Inc., et al, 1956: Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press, pg. 197. ISBN 0-19-509701-7.
  5. ^ Johnpoll, Bernard K (1994). A Documentary History of the Communist Party of the United States Vol. 3. Greenwood Press, pg. xv. ISBN 0-313-28506-3.
  6. ^ Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press, pg 41. ISBN 0-19-504361-8.
  7. ^ Brinkley, Alan (1995). The End Of Reform: New Deal Liberalism in Recession and War. Vintage, pg. 141. ISBN 0-679-75314-1.
  8. ^ Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press, pp 6, 15, 78-80. ISBN 0-19-504361-8.
  9. ^ Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press, pg. 150. ISBN 0-19-504361-8.
  10. ^ Martin Fausold, Alan Shank, editors (1991). The Constitution and the American Presidency. SUNY Press, pg. 116. ISBN 0-7914-0468-4.
  11. ^ Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509701-7.
  12. ^ Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press, pg. 133. ISBN 0-19-504361-8.
  13. ^ Brown, Ralph S. (1958). Loyalty and security: Employment tests in the United States. Yale University Press. ASIN B0006AVFQM.
  14. ^ Schrecker, Ellen (1998). Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America. Little, Brown, pg. 271. ISBN 0-316-77470-7.
  15. ^ Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press, pg. 70. ISBN 0-19-504361-8.
  16. ^ Schrecker, Ellen (1998). Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America. Little, Brown, pp 239, 203. ISBN 0-316-77470-7.
  17. ^ Schrecker, Ellen (1998). Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America. Little, Brown, pp 211, 266+. ISBN 0-316-77470-7.
  18. ^ Schrecker, Ellen (2004). The Age Of McCarthyism: A Brief History With Documents. Palgrave Macmillan, pg. 65. ISBN 0312294255.
  19. ^ Schrecker, Ellen (1998). Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America. Little, Brown, pg. 212. ISBN 0-316-77470-7.
  20. ^ Cox, John Stuart and Theoharis, Athan G. (1988). The Boss: J. Edgar Hoover and the Great American Inquisition. Temple University Press, pg. 312. ISBN 0-87722-532-X.
  21. ^ Cox, John Stuart and Theoharis, Athan G. (1988). The Boss: J. Edgar Hoover and the Great American Inquisition. Temple University Press, pg. 312. ISBN 0-87722-532-X.
  22. ^ Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press, pp 154-155. ISBN 0-19-504361-8.
  23. ^ Schrecker, Ellen (2004). The Age Of McCarthyism: A Brief History With Documents. Palgrave Macmillan, pg. 68. ISBN 0312294255.
  24. ^ Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press, pp 145-150. ISBN 0-19-504361-8.
  25. ^ Griffith, Robert (1970). The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate. University of Massachusetts Press, pg. 216. ISBN 0-87023-555-9.
  26. ^ Stone, Geoffrey R. (2004). Perilous Times: Free Speech in Wartime from the Sedition Act of 1798 to the War on Terrorism. W. W. Norton & Company, pg. 384. ISBN 0-393-05880-8.
  27. ^ Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press, pg. 138. ISBN 0-19-504361-8.
  28. ^ Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press, pg. 116. ISBN 0-19-509701-7.
  29. ^ Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509701-7.
  30. ^ Schrecker, Ellen (1998). Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America. Little, Brown, pg. 141. ISBN 0-316-77470-7.
  31. ^ Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press, 187. ISBN 0-19-504361-8.
  32. ^ Schrecker, Ellen (1998). Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America. Little, Brown, pg. xiii. ISBN 0-316-77470-7.
  33. ^ Schrecker, Ellen (2004). The Age Of McCarthyism: A Brief History With Documents. Palgrave Macmillan, pp 63-64. ISBN 0312294255.
  34. ^ Schrecker, Ellen (1998). Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America. Little, Brown, pg. 4. ISBN 0-316-77470-7.
  35. ^ D'Emilio, John (1998). Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities. University of Chicago Press; 2nd Edition. ISBN 0226142671.
  36. ^ Schrecker, Ellen (1998). Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America. Little, Brown, pg. 267. ISBN 0-316-77470-7.
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i
  38.  j k l m n
  39. ^ Blacklisted in his profession, committed suicide in 1959; Bosworth, Patricia (1998). Anything Your Little Heart Desires: An American Family Story. Touchstone. ISBN 0684838486.
  40. ^ Indicted under the Foreign Agents Registration Act; Dubois, W. E. B. (1968). The Autobiography of W. E. B. Dubois. International Publishers. ISBN 0717802345.
  41. ^ Blacklisted, imprisoned for contempt of Congress; Sabin, Arthur J. (1999). In Calmer Times: The Supreme Court and Red Monday. University of Pennsylvania Press, pg. 75. ISBN 0-8122-3507-X.
  42. ^ a b c On the Red Channels blacklist for artists and entertainers; Schrecker, Ellen (2002). The Age of McCarthyism: A Brief History with Documents. Palgrave Macmillan, pg. 244. ISBN 0-312-29425-5.
  43. ^ a b c d e Blacklisted in Hollywood; Schrecker, Ellen (2002). The Age of McCarthyism: A Brief History with Documents. Palgrave Macmillan, pg. 244. ISBN 0-312-29425-5.
  44. ^ Blacklisted and unemployed, committed suicide in 1955; Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press, pg 156. ISBN 0-19-504361-8.
  45. ^ Security clearance withdrawn; Schrecker, Ellen (2002). The Age of McCarthyism: A Brief History with Documents. Palgrave Macmillan, pg. 41. ISBN 0-312-29425-5.
  46. ^ Blacklisted, passport revoked; Manning Marable, John McMillian, Nishani Frazier, editors (2003). Freedom on My Mind: The Columbia Documentary History of the African American Experience. Columbia University Press, pg. 559. ISBN 0-231-10890-7.
  47. ^ Subpoenaed by New Hampshire Attorney General, indicted for contempt of court; Heale, M. J. (1998). McCarthy's Americans: Red Scare Politics in State and Nation, 1935-1965. University of Georgia Press, pg. 73. ISBN 0-8203-2026-9.
  48. ^ Passport revoked, incarcerated; Chang, Iris (1996). Thread of the Silkworm. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-00678-7.
  49. ^ Truman, Harry S. (September 1950). Veto of the Internal Security Bill. Truman Presidential Museum & Library. Retrieved on 2006-08-07.
  50. ^ Margaret Chase Smith Library; "Declaration of Conscience". Retrieved on 2006-08-04.
  51. ^ Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press, pg. 29. ISBN 0-19-504361-8.
  52. ^ Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press, pg. 114. ISBN 0-19-509701-7.
  53. ^ Miller, Arthur (1996-10-21). Why I Wrote "The Crucible". The New Yorker. Retrieved on 2006-08-07.
  54. ^ Faulk, John Henry (1963). Fear on Trial. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-72442-X.
  55. ^ Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press, pg. 197. ISBN 0-19-509701-7.
  56. ^ Sabin, Arthur J. (1999). In Calmer Times: The Supreme Court and Red Monday. University of Pennsylvania Press, pg. 5. ISBN 0-8122-3507-X.
  57. ^ Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press, pg. 203. ISBN 0-19-509701-7.
  58. ^ Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press, pg. 205. ISBN 0-19-509701-7.
  59. ^ Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press, pg. 207. ISBN 0-19-509701-7.
  60. ^ Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press, pg. 211. ISBN 0-19-509701-7.